Guru Granth Sahib Given Gurugaddi

10-Gurgaddi given to Sri Guru Granth Sahib JiIn this section, we present historical accounts of Sikhs and non-Sikhs alike that not only prove physical passing of Guru Gobind Singh Ji but also Guru Granth Sahib declared as the eternal Guru of the Sikhs.

First and foremost prophetic evidence is provided by Bhai Gurdas Ji, a contemporary of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and the 6th Gurus. In his Vaar 1, Pauri 48 he writes that some Sikhs asked Guru Hargobind Ji that so far the light of Guru has had resided in six physical bodies (Guru Nanak Sahib to Guru Hargobind Ji) and how many more will the light (authority) be passed on to. Guru Sahib in response stated that the guruship (authority of Guru) will be passed on to four more human forms. Guru Sahib stated unequivocally that the next four Gurus will be in pair of two (father and a son) clearly referring to Guru Harrai Ji (7th Guru) and his son Guru Harkrishan Ji (8th Guru) and Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji (9th Guru) and his son Guru Gobind Singh Ji (10th Guru).

ਪੁਛਨਿ ਸਿਖ ਅਰਦਾਸ ਕਰ ਛਿਅ ਮਹਿਲਾ ਤਕਿ ਦਰਸੁ ਨਿਹਾਰੀ॥

ਅਗਮ ਅਗੋਚਰ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਬੋਲੇ ਮੁਖ ਤੇ ਸੁਣਹੁ ਸੰਸਾਰੀ॥

ਕਲਿਜੁਗਿ ਪੀੜੀ ਸੋਢੀਆਂ ਨਿਹਚਲ ਨੀਵ ਉਸਾਰਿ ਖਲਾਰੀ॥

ਜੁਗ ਜੁਗ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਧਰੇ ਅਵਤਾਰੀ ॥48॥

The Sikhs prayed and asked that they have seen the Six Gurus (how many more are to come). The True Guru, the knower of the unknowable and Seer of the invisible told the Sikhs to listen to. The lineage of the Sodhis have been established on the sound foundation. Four more Gurus will come to earth (yuga 2, yuga 2 i.e. 2+2=4)(48)

In Rehatnamas of Bhai Nand Lal Ji and Bhai Sahib Singh Ji, authority of Guru Granth Sahib is clearly mentioned. Rehatnama of Bhai Nand Lal Ji is written in the form of a dialogue between the Guru and the Bhai. It states:

ਦੂਸਰ ਰੂਪ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਜਾਨਹੁ । ਆਪਨ ਅੰਗ ਮੇਰੇ ਕਰ ਮਾਨਹੁ ।…

ਜੋ ਸਿਖ ਗੁਰ ਦਰਸ਼ਨ ਕੀ ਚਾਹਿ । ਦਰਸ਼ਨ ਕਰੇ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਆਹਿ ।…

ਜੋ ਮਮ ਸਾਥ ਚਹੇ ਕਰਿ ਬਾਤ । ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਪੜ੍ਹੈ ਬਿਚਾਰਹਿ ਸਾਥ ।

ਜੋ ਮੁਝ ਬਚਨ ਸੁਨਨ ਕੀ ਚਾਹਿ । ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਵਿਚਾਰ ਸੁਨਹੁ ਚਿਤ ਲਾਇ ।

ਮੇਰਾ ਰੂਪ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਜਾਨ । ਇਸ ਮੇਂ ਭੇਦ ਨ ਰੰਚਕ ਮਾਨ । (ਰਹਿਤਨਾਮਾ ਭਾਈ ਨੰਦ ਲਾਲ ਜੀ)

In the above, Guru Sahib tells Bhai Nand Lal that there is no difference between Himself and the Guru Granth and whosoever wishes to have His vision or a discourse with him; they should see and consult the Guru Granth Sahib. Such an emphatic claim would have never been made if the guruship was not vested in Guru Granth Sahib.

Bhai Sahib Singh Ji in his rehatnama states:

ਗੁਰ ਕੀ ਪਾਹੁਲ ਸਿਖ ਲੇਇ, ਰਹਤ ਕਮਾਵਹਿ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ । (ਰਹਿਤਨਾਮਾ ਭਾਈ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਸਿੰਘ)

Translation – A Sikh must take Pahul (Amrit initiation) of Guru and abide by code of conduct of the (Guru) Granth.

Had Guru Granth Sahib not been the Guru, there was no need to instruct Sikhs to abide by its teachings.

Sarabloh Granth mentions:

ਪ੍ਰਤਖਯ ਕਲਾ ਪਾਰਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਧਣੀ ਛੈ, ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਪੰਥ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਵਰਤੰਤਾ ।

ਦਾਸ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਫਤਿਹ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਕੀ, ਖਾਲਸਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰ ਰੂਪ ਬਦੰਤਾ । (ਸਰਬਲੋਹ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ)

Gurbilas ChhevIn Patshahi completed on July 22, 1718, within ten years of the Guru’s death, leaves no doubt about the guruship of Guru Granth Sahib. In chapter 4, the author mentions compilation of Guru Granth Sahib by the fifth Guru, Guru Arjav Dev Ji and its installation in Harmandar Sahib. The author states:

ਮਮ ਆਗਿਆ ਸਬ ਹੀ ਸੁਨੋ ਸਤਿ ਬਾਤ ਨਿਰਧਾਰ । ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰੂ ਸਮ ਮਾਨਿਓ ਭੇਦ ਨਾ ਕੋਊ ਬਿਚਾਰ ॥ 409॥

ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਕਲਜੁਗ ਭਯੋ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰੂਪ ਸਮਾਨ । ਦਸ ਪਾਤਸ਼ਾਹੀਆਂ ਰੂਪ ਇਹ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਜਾਨ ॥412॥

ਗੁਰੂ ਦਰਸ ਜਿਹ ਦੇਖਨਾ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਦਰਸਾਇ । ਬਾਤ ਕਰਨਿ ਗੁਰ ਸੋ ਚਹੈ ਪੜ੍ਹੈ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਮਨ ਲਾਇ ॥413॥

Hear ye all, this precept of mine as true and certain. Recognize the Granth to be the same as the Guru, Think not of any difference between the two. (409)

In the Kali-yuga, the Guru Granth has assumed the form of the Sri Guru. Recognize the Guru Granth to be the very self of the Ten Gurus. (412)

He who wishes to see the Guru, let him see the Guru Granth. And, he who wishes to speak to the Guru, let him read the Granth with a devoted mind. (413)

[Chapter IV, old ed. pp. 74-75; new ed. p. 90] (Cited in Succession Theories, 16-17)

Dr. Ganda Singh, an eminent Sikh historian, mentions a manuscript called called Guru Sahib Daswen Patshah jI ke JotI jot Samawane ka Prasang that describes the account of demise of Guru Sahib in 1708. The manuscript, he mentions, is preserved in Punjab State Archives, Patiala. According to it, Guru Sahib before his demise told the Sikhs that he was not appointing anyone to succeed him as Guru that he was entrusting them to SrI Sahib and the Shabad, the Great Word, as given in the Granth Sahib which should be accepted by them all. Narrating the last sermon of Guru Sahib, the manuscript states:

ਤਾਂ ਤੇ ਅਬ ਕਿਸੀ ਕੋ ਗੁਰਿਆਈ ਕਾ ਤਿਲਕ ਦੇਣਾ ਜੋਗ ਨਹੀ । ਅਰ ਤੁਮ ਜੋ ਸਰਬਤ ਸੰਗਤ ਮੇਰਾ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਹੋ ਤੁਮ ਕੋ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਕੀ ਗੋਦ ਮਹਿ ਪਾਇਆ ਅਰ ਸਬਦ ਕਾ ਲੜ ਪਕੜਾਇਆ ਹੈ ।

Translation – Now it is not wise and appropriate to give guruship to anyone. And you all of my Sangat are my Khalsa, you are entrusted to the protection of God and Shabad. (Cited in Succession Theories, 79, Appendix III)

Next source is Gurbilas Patshahi 10 written by Koer Singh, a student of Bhai Mani Singh. In his work, he makes it abundantly clear that the guruship was bestowed upon Guru Granth Sahib. He states:

ਸਰਬ ਸੁ ਸੰਗਤ ਖਾਲਸ ਮਾਨ । ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਸਿਕੇਤ ਗੋਦ ਮੈ ਜਾਨ ।

ਲੜ ਪਕੜਾਇ ਸਬਦ ਕਾ ਰੂਪ । ਜੋ ਮਾਨੇ ਸੋ ਸਿੰਘ ਅਨੂਪ ॥97॥

ਦਰਸਨ ਗੁਰ ਕਾ ਹੈ ਸਾਵਧਾਨ । ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਮਾਨ ।

ਲੈ ਆਵੋ ਤਾ ਕੋ ਯਾ ਬਾਨਾ । ਲੈ ਆਏ ਗੁਰ ਦਸਮ ਸੁਜਾਨਾ ॥98॥…

ਤਬ ਪੁਨਿ ਆਪ ਉਠੇ ਸਭ ਸੰਗਾ । ਪੈਸੇ ਪਾਂਚ ਨਲੀਏਰ ਸੁ ਅੰਗਾ ॥99॥

ਲੈ ਕੇ ਤਾਹਿ ਅਰਪ ਕੀ ਬੰਦਨ । ਪ੍ਰਦੱਖਨ ਕਰਤੇ ਮਨ ਰੰਗਨ ।

ਕਹਾ, “ਜੋਇ ਬਚ ਕੀਨਾ ਚਾਹੇ । ਪਾਠ ਕਰੈ ਗੁਰ ਕੋ ਸੁਖ ਪਾਏ ॥100॥

ਯਾ ਸਮ ਔਰ ਕੋਈ ਗੁਰ ਨਾਹੀ । ਬਿਨਾ ਕਾਨ ਸਚੁ ਬਾਕ ਭਨਾਹੀ । (Edited by Shamsher Singh Ashok. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1999. Print, p. 265)

Consider the entire Khalsa to have been entrusted to the protection (lap) of the Wielder of the Sword (Asi Ketu) the Divine Protector.

“I have given to you to hold the sheet of the embodiment of Word (shabad ka roop). He who accepts it shall be an incomparable – really true Singh.

“Recognize Sri Granth as ever-ready (readily available, ever present) darshan (sight, appearance or embodiment) of the Guru.

“Bring it here to this place.” Let us go to the Adi Sat-Guru (the great Adi Guru Granth sahib).

Then he got up along with all of his Sikhs, took five paise and a coconut with him, offered them himself [to the Holy Book], bowed down, circumambulated with all reverence and said : ‘He who wishes to talk to me should read the Guru [Granth Sahib] and receive the peace of mind. ‘There is no other Guru equal to it. Without any hesitation, I utter this truth. (Translation by Ganda Singh in Succession Theories)

Next source, Bansavali Nama by Kesar Singh Chibbar was completed in 1769-70. In his work, Chapter 10, the author mentioned very clearly that Guru Sahib’s cremation took place after he had been bathed in the rose and Ganga water. Regarding guruship, he writes in Chapter 14:

ਦਸਵਾਂ ਪਾਤਸਾਹ ਗੱਦੀ ਗੁਰਿਆਈ ਦੀ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਨੂੰ ਦੇ ਗਿਆ ।

ਅਜ ਪ੍ਰਤਖ ਗੁਰੂ ਅਸਾਡਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਹੈ, ਸੋਈ ਗਿਆ ਜੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥੋਂ ਗਿਆ ।…

ਬਿਨਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਦੇ ਕੋਈ ਹੋਰੁ ਨ ਜਾਣੇ ।…

ਜੋ ਸਿਖ ਗੁਰੂ ਕਾ ਹੋਇ, ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਚਨੋਂ ਮੁੜੇ । ਨਿਸਚੈ ਜਾਨੋ ਭਵਜਲ ਨਦੀ ਮੈ ਸੋਈ ਰੁੜ੍ਹੇ ।347।

ਆਜ ਕੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਹਮਾਰਾ ।…

ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਚਨ ਏਹ ਸਚ ਕਰ ਜਾਨੋ । ਬਿਨਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰੂ ਹੋਰ ਨਾ ਮਾਨੋ ।

ਅਤੇ ਜੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰੂ ਤੇ ਮੁਹੁ ਫੇਰੋਗੇ । ਤਾ ਏਹ ਜੂਨਾਂ ਸਭੇ ਜਨਮੁ ਪਾਇ ਕੇ ਹੇਰੋਗੇ । 355। (Chibbar, Kesar Singh. Bansavali Nama. Ed Piara Singh Padam. Amritsar: Singh Brothers, 1995. Print, pp. 252-53)

The next historical source is Mehima Parkash written in 1774 by Saroop Das Bhalla, a descendent of the 3rd Guru. In Sakhi 27, the author describes the last event related to Guru Sahib’s demise. He writes:

ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਦੀਨ ਦਿਆਲ ਬਚਨ ਕੀਆ । ਜੋ ਦਸ ਸਰੂਪ ਹਮਾਰੇ ਪੂਰਨ ਭਏ । ਅਬ ਮੇਰੀ ਜਾਹਗਾ ਗੁਰ ਗਿਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਕੋ ਜਾਨਨਾ । ਜਿਸ ਨੇ ਮੇਰੇ ਸੇ ਬਾਤ ਕਰਨੀ ਜੋਇ ਤੇ ਆਦਿ ਗਿਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਕਾ ਪਾਠ ਕਰਨਾ । ਮੇਰੇ ਸੇ ਬਾਤਾ ਹੋਵੈਗੀ ।…ਸਿਖਾਂ ਨੇ ਬਿਬਾਨ ਤਿਆਰ ਕੀਆ । ਆਪ ਨੇ ਲੇਟ ਕਰ ਚਾਦਰ ਤਾਨ ਲੀਆ । ਨਿਜ ਪਦ ਨਿਰਬਾਨ ਮੇ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਲੀਨ ਭਏ । ਨਾ ਕਹੂੰ ਆਏ ਨਾ ਕਹੂੰ ਗਏ । ਯਹ ਚਲਿਤ੍ਰ ਦੇਖ ਕੇ ਸਭ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਸਤਗੁਰ ਕੋ ਪਾਰਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਜੋਤੀ ਸਰੂਪ ਜਾਨਾ ।…ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਜੀ ਕੀ ਜਾਗਾ ਗੁਰੂ ਗਿਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਕੋ ਜਾਨਾ । (Bhalla, Saroop Das. Mehima Parkash vol. 2 part II. Ed. Uttam Singh Bhatia. Punjab: Bhasha Vibhaag, 2003. Print, pp. 862-63)

The Great Guru, merciful to the lowly, said: “Our Ten forms have come to end. Now recognize the Guru Granth Sahib in my place, He who wishes to talk to me should read the Adi Granth Sahib. This will be like talking to me….Having said this, he desired them to prepare the biban (the wooden board to carry the dead body to the cremation ground). After this was done, he lay down and covered himself with a sheet- and liberated himself from human existence (or merged himself in the Divinity). Neither did he come anywhere nor did he go anywhere. Seeing this spectacle all people fully believed that the Great Guru was a part of the Divine Light….Sri Guru Granth was recognized in place of the Guru.

Another 18th century account, Bhatt Vahis by Saroop Singh Kaushish clearly mention that Guru Sahib decided to pass guruship to Guru Granth Sahib. He instructed Bhai Daya Singh to open it ceremonially, placed five paises and a coconut and bowed in front of it. Then his funeral pyre was prepared and cremation ceremony performed. After that, Sikhs performed Bhog ceremony of the Guru Granth Sahib. (Kaushish, Saroop Singh. Guru Kiyan Sakhiyan. Ed. Piara Singh Padam. Amritsar: Singh Brothers, 1999. Print, pp. 200-202)

Prachin Panth Parkash written by Rattan Singh Bhangu in 1841 is entirely devoted to Sikh history after 1708. The author makes no mention of the demise of Guru Sahib or describes any related events. However, in his work he mentions Guru Sahib instructing his Sikhs as follows:

 ਪਹਿਰ ਕਛਹਿਰੇ ਸਿਰ ਬੰਧਯੋ ਪਾਗ । ਗੁਰਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਚਨ ਪਰ ਰਹਯੋ ਲਾਗ ।

Wear Kachera (underwear garment) and tie a turban on your head. Abide by the teachings of Guru Granth Sahib.

It is noteworthy that the author has referred to Guru Granth Sahib as the Guru which is significant enough to prove that the authority of Shabad being the Guru was accepted by him.

The next source is Gur Pad Prem Parkash written by Bawa Sumer Singh in 1873. In Sakhi 501, he describes unambiguously that Guru Sahib prepared for his demise and gave guruship to Guru Granth Sahib. He states:

ਰੂਪ ਇਕਾਦਸ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਰ ਤਾਂ ਛਿਨ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਆਏ ॥ ਪੈਸੇ ਪਾਂਚ ਨਲੇਰ ਰਾਖ ਕਰ ਗੁਰੁਆਈ ਸੁਧਰਾਏ ॥10॥ (Bawa, Sumair Singh. Sri Gur Pad Prem Parkash. Ed. Achhar Singh Kahlon. Patiala: Punjabi University, 2000. Print, p. 520)

The last source we wish to reference is Panth Parkash by Giani Gian Singh. His account of guruship being passed to Guru Granth Sahib has remained consistent in all editions of this work. The author states:

ਇਮ ਕਹਿ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਕਾ ਪਰਕਾਸ ਕਰਾਯੋ । ਪੈਸੇ ਪਾਂਚ ਨਲੇਰ ਲੈ ਤਿਸ ਅੱਗ ਟਿਕਾਯੋ ।

ਕਰ ਪਰਕਰਮਾ ਗੁਰੂ ਜੀ ਅਭਿ ਬੰਦਨ ਕੀੲ । ਗੁਰੂ ਰੂਪ ਥਪ ਪੂਜ ਕੈ ਸਭ ਤੈ ਪੁਜਵੀਓ ।….

ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ਪੂਰਨ ਹਰਿ ਅਵਤਾਰਾ । ਜਗਮਗ ਜੋਤ ਬਿਰਾਜਹੀ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਮਝਾਰਾ ।…

ਆਗਿਆ ਭਈ ਅਕਾਲ ਕੀ ਤਬੀ ਚਲਾਯੋ ਪੰਥ ॥ ਸਬ ਸਿਖਨ ਕੋ ਹੁਕਮ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਨੀਓ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ॥

ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਮਾਨੀਓ ਪ੍ਰਗਟ ਗੁਰਾ ਕੀ ਦੇਹ ॥ ਜੋ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਕੋ ਮਿਲਯੋ ਚਹੈ ਖੋਜ ਸਬਦ ਮੈ ਲੇਹ ॥

ਦਰਸਯੋ ਚਹਿ ਸਤਗੁਰੂ ਜੋ ਸੋ ਦਰਸੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ । ਪਢੈ ਸੁਨੈ ਸਵਾਰਥ ਲਹੈ ਪਰਮਾਰਥ ਕੇ ਪੰਥ ।

ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਊਭੈ ਜਹਾਜ ਉਦਾਰ । ਸਰਧਾ ਕਰ ਜੋ ਸੇਵ ਹੈ ਸੋ ਉਤਰੇ ਭਵ ਪਾਰ ॥ (ਪੰਥ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ ਪੂਰਬਾਰਧ, PDF file, pp. 1839-40)

The above proof, establishes conclusively that Sri Guru Gobind Singh appointed Sri Guru Granth Sahib as the final and eternal Guru of the Sikhs.